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      《装卸时间与滞期费》第3章-装卸时间的起算-连载48

      发布者:海员网|更新时间:2019-04-01 20:58:58|咨询可以加微信:cyfu01 | 172人评论)

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        《装卸时间与滞期费》第6版

        CHAPTER 3 第3章

        Commencement of laytime 装卸时间的起算

        Obstacles created by the charterer 承租人造成的障碍

        3.367 If a vessel is prevented or delayed from becoming an Arrived ship by obstacles created by the charterer or those for whom he is responsible, the general principle is that the charterer becomes liable for the delay. Similar principles apply where the charterer, although not causing the obstacles, fails to remove them when it is his duty so to do. The point was put succinctly by Gorell Barnes J in Ogmore v. Borner, when he said:

        It is the ordinary and natural implication that neither party should prevent the other from performing that part of the contract which falls to be performed by that other; and if the charterers by themselves, or by their agents acting within the scope of their authority, have placed impediments in the way of shipowners bringing their vessel into dock, the charterers ought to be responsible for the delay so caused, as if the vessel had in fact arrived in dock.

        3.367如果是由于承租人或是由他负责的人造成的障碍使船舶受阻或延迟成为抵达船,根据一般的原则,承租人应对此延迟负责。类似原则也适用于,尽管该障碍不是承租人造成的,但他却未尽义务将其消除的情况。Gorell Barnes法官在Ogmore v. Borner—案中,简要地总结了这一问題,说:

        通常和自然的原则是:任一当事方都不得阻碍另一方履行合同中所规定的他应履行的义务;而如果承租人本人或其代理人在其授权范围内,已经阻碍船东安排该轮靠抵码头,则承租人应对此延迟负责,就像该轮实际上已经靠上了码头一样。

        3.368 There is an implied term that a charterer must act with reasonable despatch and in accordance with the ordinary practice of the port to enable a vessel to become an Arrived ship, but the burden of proving that the charterer is in breach of such a term lies on the shipowner. Where a breach of these principles occurs, however, it is not entirely certain whether the remedy lies in damages or whether the commencement of laytime is brought forward, although where the obstacle was a delay in acceptance of notice of readiness, one London arbitral tribunal, at least, was prepared to hold that the commencement of laytime should be brought forward.

        3.368承租人必须根据该港的通常习惯做法合理速遣以使该轮成为抵达船,这是他们的一项默示义务,但承租人未能履行这一义务/违反这一条文的举证责任在船东方面。然而,当有违反这些原则的事情发生时,是否要赔偿损失,还是使装卸时间的起算提前,这并非是完全确定无疑的,尽管这种障碍是延误接受通知书。至少,有一个伦敦仲裁是准备裁定应该提前起算装卸时间。

        3.369 The cases relating to the creation of obstacles by the charterer appear to fall into two categories—those relating to a failure to have cargo available for loading or railway wagons available for discharge, where such is a requirement by the port authority before a berth is allocated; and secondly, those where a berth is refused because of the number of other ships under charter to the same charterer.

        3.369有关承租人造成障碍的情况大致可以分成如下两种类型:一些是由于承租人未备好货物或卸货用的铁路货车,当然这也是港口当局为其安排泊位前的要求;另一些情况就是由于同一承租人的其它船舶占据着泊位而被拒绝靠泊。
        

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